Computer Science: How do digital signatures work?
Note:The terms ‘electronic signature’ and ‘digital signature’ are often used interchangeably. However, the primary differences between ‘electronic signature’ and ‘digital signature’ are linked with signature laws and regulatory requirements.How do digital signatures work?The signature software leverages a public key algorithm to generate two keys that are mathematically linked: one private and one public. In order to create a digital signature, the software then creates a one-way hash of the electronic data to be signed.When a user signs a document online, he/she leverages the private key to create a signature. On a general basis, the private key remains under the sole control of the owner. This private key is used to encrypt the hash.The encrypted hash, along with other information, such as the hashing algorithm, together forms a digital signature.How digital signatures help validate integrityThe value of the hash is unique to the hashed data. Any change in the data, even by a single character, will result in a different value. This attribute enables users to validate the integrity of the data by leveraging the signer's public key to decrypt the hash.If the decrypted hash matches a second computed hash of the same data, it proves that the data hasn't changed since it was signed.If the two hashes don't match, then it is a clear indication of the fact that either:(i) the data has either been tampered with in some way (integrity) or(ii) the signature was created with a private key that doesn't correspond to the public key presented by the signer (authentication).
How do I remove a password from an Aadhaar card PDF file?
New e Aadhar Card password is he first four letters of name plus the birth year. Some examples:Name: ARJUN KUMARDate of Birth: 05/02/1995Password: ARJU1995Name: JAY KUMARDate of Birth: 11/05/1993Password: JAYK1993Name: S. KUMARDate of Birth: 10/07/1996Password: S.KU1996Name: ANUDate of Birth: 09/11/1999Password: ANU1999If don’t know the password, then there are many online brute force password removers available online.If you know the password, and want to create a new e Aadhar Card without password, use PDF ConverterPDF Converter Trial: Download
I am an online educator and I create documents for my clients to read and write in (like a digital workbook). Do they need to have Adobe Reader as I created the documents in Adobe Acrobat Pro.
How do I register a startup in India? How much money and time does it take? If am currently only 17, what issues will I face during registration?
Algorithm for starting a Private Limited Company: Engineer's ViewPersonally I believe, If someone is starting a company with long term perspective or to bring some change through their unique Product/Services, one must go for Private limited firm. Prime reason for this is easy to raise funds from Angels/VC in case you go for investment.Step 1. Registration of CompanyName Selection: Check whether your desired company name is available or not at MCA website. Name must be unique & must resemble with business you intend to do (highlighted one). EX: Arihant Labs Retail Services Pvt. LtdRegistration of Name at ROC: Name approval usually takes maximum of 14 days. This is done online through MCA website. Moreover, you need to apply with at least 4 names for approval with a writeup about significance of names with main business of the company.Documents Required:Options for names for the proposed Company (on the basis of preference)Amount of Share Capital, proposed shareholding ratioA paragraph on the proposed major line of business of the company (main objects)City of Registered Office.Copy of ownership deed/sale deed(if property is owned)Copy of rent agreement with NOC (if property is rented)Copy of latest electricity bill/telephone bill/mobile bill for both directorsCopy of latest electric bill/telephone bill for the registered office proof.Obtaining DIN & DSC:Documents RequiredPAN Card copies for directors and shareholders.Voter ID/Passport/Driving License for directors and shareholders.Occupation of the Directors for directors and shareholders.E-Mail IDs of all directors and shareholders.Phone Numbers for all directors and shareholders.Photos for directors and shareholdersCompany Incorporation: After above mentioned formalities have been completed, we need to file following forms/docs in Rs 100 stamp paper:Affidavits for non- acceptanceINC 9, INC 10DIR 2NOC : This is required to be filed by the owner of the property on which your company will be situated.Subscriber Sheets of MOA & AOADocuments required for filling MOA & AOAMust be filled on OWN handwritingPassport size photosSheets needs to be witnessed by CA/CS/AdvocateStep 2. Obtaining PAN/TAN: After company gets incorporated, you may apply for PAN/TAN.Step 3. Trade Licence in case you are selling PRODUCTS: This is required in some places for carrying out sales. You can obtain this from local Municipality.Step 4. VAT/CST registration for selling Products: For selling intra-state, you need VAT registration & for selling inter-state, you need to register for CST.Documents Required:Trade LicenceCompany Incorporation CertificatePAN card of company as well as of all the directorsProof of residence of DirectorsProof of occupancy of place of business (Rent agreement/ ownership deed, Rent Bills etc)MOA & AOA of companyCurrent Account in the name of company in any national bankStep 5. Service tax registration for Service Industry: In India, you need to pay service tax of 14.5% on every services you have charged customer for.Documents Required:Company Incorporation CertificatePAN card of company as well as of all the directorsProof of residence of DirectorsProof of occupancy of place of business (Rent agreement/ ownership deed, Rent Bills etc)MOA & AOA of companyCurrent Account in the name of company in any national bankThat's All folks! Your STARTUP is up to Conquer the World.UPVOTE & SHARE your views/issuesWe at labkafe, prefer taxmantra for our legal requirements.
How do I create an Adobe digital signature?
If you’re looking to create adobe digital signature then simply visit on their website. However if you’re looking for advanced digital signature then you should go with eSign Genie as it offers more features as compared to adobe. See the comparison https://www.esigngenie.com/compare/
How do I make a PVT Ltd company in India?
How to register a company (Pvt. Ltd.)Pre-requisites1. Have paid-up capital of INR 1,00,0002. Have minimum of 2 directors/board members and two shareholders3. Have maximum of 50 members only4.Cannot publicly sell shares. Can only invite people to buy shares by issuing aprospectusStep1: Acquire DIN (Director Identification Number)DIN is a unique identification number for an existing director or a person intending tobecome a director of a company. As per a recent amendment to the Companies Act 1956, DIN has become mandatory for all the directors. DIN is unique and specific to an individual, therefore only one DIN is allotted per individual even if the individual serves as director at multiple companies. No fee is charged for issuing DIN. This process takes approximately 3 to 5 working days.Supporting documents required (soft-copies):1.Photograph2.Proof of identity3.Proof of residenceRegister on MCA website for login ID and password(create an account)I.File eForm DIN-11.Download eForm DIN-12.Fill the form3.Attach necessary documents4.Sign using digital signature5.“Check Form”6.Upload eForm7.Pay fees by credit card, debitcard, internet banking or cash/cheque at designated banks (State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Bank, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank) using the pre-filed challan that will be generated8.Note the Service Request Number (SRN) for later enquiries9.Check acknowledgement by email or through MCA portalII.Intimate approved DIN To your Company (within 30 days from date of approval)a.Download Form DIN-2 and printStep 2: Acquire Digital Signature Certificate(DSC):At least one of the directors should have a valid Digital Signature Certificate issued by the Certifying Authorities (CA) and approved by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The Information Technology Act,2000 provides for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic forms, in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. Every document prescribed under the Companies Act, 1956, is required to be filed with the digital signature of the managing director or director or manager or secretary of the company. Therefore at least one of directors must have a digital signature. Any person may make an application to the Certifying Authority for the issue ofa Digital Signature in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government. Digital Signatures are typically issued with one year validity and two year validity. The issuance cost varies depending on the CA. Digital Signatures can be obtained within an hour.One can acquire his/her Digital Signature certificates from these government listed agencies like TCS, IDBRT, MTNL, SAFESCRYPT, NIC, nCODE Solutions etc.Step 3: Apply for the company to be registeredThis is the final major step in a registration of your company which includes incorporating company name, Registering the office address or notice of situation of office and notice for appointment of company directors, manager and secretary. And also regarding the take and pay for their qualification shares.Prerequisite for Virtual eFiling1.Install the following prerequisite software:Windows 2000 / Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7 –Operating SystemInternet Explorere v6.0 and above, Google Chrome, Mozilla FirefoxAdobe Reader from version 7.5 to version 10.1.4Java Runtime Environment (JRE –latest version freely downloadable fromwww.sun.com)2.Get yourself registered at the portal (www.mca.gov.in)3.Obtains a Director Identification Number (DIN).4.Obtain a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC).5.Broadband Internet connectivity or higher.6.A scanner (above 200 DPI) for converting the attachments in the PDF format.Steps:I.Fill Form-1A for obtaining the name for the company-onlineFor obtaining name for your new company, An application in Form-1A needs to be filed with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) of the state in which the Registered Office of the proposed Company is to be situated to ascertain the availability of a name along with an official service fee of Rs.500. You also have to provide the following information in the form.• Name of the proposed company (Minimum 4 alternative names, maximum 6).Indicate the order of preference. Ensure that the company name is in accordance to the guidelines of the MCA, and also ensure the name is unique and does not resemble the name of any existing company in India. The company name must end with the words ‘Private Limited’ or ‘PVT Ltd’. In order to have specific key words in the name such as corporation, International, Hindustan, Industries, India etc., the proposed company should satisfy a minimum authorized capital criteria.• Location of registered office of the proposed company• Main Objectives of the business of the company• Names and addresses of the directors• Proposed Authorized Share Capital of the Company• DIN & DSCSubmit duly filled form to the Registrar along with fee of Rs. 500.The Registrar shall intimate, within two to three days, whether the proposed name is available or not. If the preferred name is not available apply for a fresh name on the same application. The name made available by the Registrar shall be valid for a period of six months. In case, if the company is not incorporated within this validity period, an application may be made for renewal of name by paying additional fees. Otherwise the name approval process has to be repeated by submitting new application after payment of requisite fees.In about 10 days, the ROC will inform you about approval or objections. If there are any objections then ROC will suggest you with some available names and let you choose among them. If your company name is approved then you will receive a formal letter regarding the confirmation of the same. Keep the same which will be required during registration process of the proposed company.II.Prepare documentsAfter obtaining name approval from the ROC the following documents must beprepared to incorporate the company• Memorandum of Association (MOA) The Memorandum of Association is a document that sets out the constitution of the company. It contains, among-st others, the objectives and the scope of activity of the company and also describes the relationship of the company with the outside world.• Articles of Association (AOA) The Articles of Association contains the rules and regulations of the company for the management of its internal affairs. While the Memorandum specifies the objectives and purposes for which the Company has been formed, the Articles lay down the rules and regulations for achieving those objectives and purposes. It also states the authorized share capital of the proposed company and the names of its first / permanent directors. Professional help is to be sought in the drafting of the MOA and AOA, as it contains the governing policies, rules and by-laws of the proposed venture. The draft must be carefully vetted by the promoters before printing and stamping.The MOA and AOA must be signed by at least two subscribers in his own hand, along with father’s name, occupation, address and the number of shares subscribed for and witnessed by at least one person. Then the MOA and AOA are required to be stamped & filed with the ROC. A stamp duty is required to be paid on the MOA and on the AOA. The stamp duty depends on the authorized share capital and varies between states. Details of applicable stamp duty can be obtained from here. eStamping facility is now available via MCA’s portal. The document preparation process may take five to seven days.• Form 1 –providing details of promoters of the company• Form 18 –providing details of address of the registered office of the company• Form 32 –providing details of Directors, managers and secretaries of the companyIII.Submission of DocumentsSubmit the following documents to the ROC with the filing fee and the registration fee:• The stamped and signed Memorandum and Articles of Association (3 copies).• Form-1, 18 & 32 in duplicate.• Any agreement referred to in the Memorandum & Articles.• Any agreement proposed to be entered into withany individual for appointment as Managing or whole time Director.• Declaration of Compliance by an advocate or company secretary or chartered accountant or director, manager or secretary of the company• Name availability letter issued by the ROC.• Power of Attorney authorizing a person, on behalf of subscribers, any documents and papers filed for registration. The power of attorney should be given on Non-Judicial stamp paper of appropriate value and shall be submitted to the Registrar.After submitting these forms, once the application has been approved by MCA, you will receive a confirmation email regarding the application for incorporation of a new company, and the status of the form will get changed to Approved.IV.Payment of Registration FeesThe fees payable to the Registrar at the time of registration of a new company varies according to the authorized capital of a company proposed to be registered. Payment for the Registration and Filing Fee must be made by Demand Draft/Banker’s Cheque if it exceeds Rs.1000/.V.Obtaining Certificate of IncorporationThe ROC will issue a Certificate of Incorporation after careful review of documents submitted. Section 34(1) cast an obligation on the Registrar to issue a Certificate of Incorporation, normally within 7 days of the receipt of documents.A Private Limited Company can start its business immediately on receiving the Certificate of Incorporation.Check these documents before submission of a company:1.DIN of all those directors of a proposed company.2.DSC –Digital Signature Certificate3.Original copy of the formal letter issued by ROC regarding availability of Company name.4.Form-1 for incorporation of a company.5.Form-18 for situation or address of the proposed company.6.Form-32 for particulars of proposed directors, managers and secretary.Formalities to be followed while incorporation of a company:1.Obtain a TAN card2.Obtain a Permanent account number (PAN) from income tax dept. India3.If required: Documents obeying shop and establishment acts.4.If required: For foreign trade, Registration documents of import export code from Director General of foreign trade.5.If required: Registration documents of Software technologies Parks of India (STPI).6.If required: RBI approval for foreign companies investing in India and FIPB approval.7.Both Indian and foreign directors need to have valid Digital Signature Certificates from authorized agencies.For any further clarifications, please visithttp://www.mca.gov.in/MCA21/Regi...Thanks & Regards,Stay4u.
How do I establish a private limited company?
A private limited company is the most common form of business entity in India. It is easy to maintain and raise funds, offers limited liability to its members, offer flexibility, easy bank loan accessibility.Read Advantages of Private Limited Company. Following are the steps involved in the registration of private limited company Basic requirementThere must be at least 2 members in the companyThe company shall be made for legal business and must not harm the society. The company object should not be illegal.In case, if the registrar issue the certificate of incorporation to such business entity , then certificate will be void and registration will be itself cancelled by the Central Government and appropriate proceeding will take place against the entity and the Registrar.Read in detail Pre-Requisites for Registration of Private Limited Company Step 1: Obtaining Director Identification Number (DIN) & Digital SignatureThe First step isObtaining Director Identification Number (DIN) for the proposed Directors in the CompanyObtaining Digital Signature for one of the Directors of Company.After this, application for name of Private Limited Company must be applied. Step 2: Applying for the nameThe promoters should propose one or more suitable name for the name of company as it offers the flexibility and choice to registrar to select the name in case some names are identical or similar to registered business entities or trademarkThe name should not be similar or identical to any registered company or trademark.The name should not be one prohibited under the ‘Emblems and names Act, 1950’.The name of company must have suffix “Private limited Company “.After submission of name, registrar will review and approve one of the name .It usually takes 3 to 5 working days to approve the name for company .Read tips for Choosing the right name for your company registration for easy approval of name by ROC.Step 3: Filing for Incorporation/Establishing of Private Limited CompanyAfter the name approval, promoters should submit the application, prescribed fees and below said following documents to the registrar.Articles of Association, if anyMemorandum of AssociationDeclaration from DirectorsAffidavits of the DirectorsA declaration stating that the requirements of the Act and the rules framed there under have been compiled with. This declaration is required to be signed by an advocate of the or Supreme Court or an attorney or a pleader having the right to appear before or a High Court or a Chartered Accountant in whole time practice in India who is engaged in the formation of a company, or by a person named in the Articles as a Director, Manager or Secretary of the Company.Besides the aforementioned documents, the company must provide relevant information regarding of its registered office within 15 days of registration or during filing of incorporation documents.Step 4: Subscribing to the Private Limited CompanyAs per the Companies Act 2013, a subscriber must sign their names and must be subscribed to the shares of the company incorporated. It means each subscriber must have at least one share of the company. Each subscriber should sign the memorandum in presence of at least one witness and must clearly state the following:AddressPersonal DescriptionOccupationNo of shares subscribedNature of shares etc.Likewise both (Article and Memorandum of association) must be duly signed and stamped.Step 5: Certificate of IncorporationAfter filing the above-mentioned documents and payment of necessary fees, the certificate for incorporation would be issued by the Registrar of Companies. Upon Incorporation, the company becomes a legal person separate from its members.The process to register a private limited is complex and time-consuming. Our team at LegalRaasta can help startups and Entrepreneurs Register Private Limited Company in 14-15 days @ 13,999/- only (inclusive of government fee) saving 40% compared to typical CA/CS
Can some one explain how to use digital signature class 2 in foxit reader pdf document?
Digital signatures is very helpful to sign documents online. You can stay away from online scams when you have digitally signed agreement. I am sure this link will help you.Free PDF Reader | PDF Viewer Download | Foxit ReaderThere are some other ways to use digital signature.Get Contracts Signed Using this WordPress PluginIt will be beneficial for you.